To track transfer of lipoglycans from infected macrophages to T cells, we co-cultured Ag85B-specific P25 CD4+ T cells, separated the T cells from the macrophages by FACS of non-adherent cells, solubilized the T cells and performed western blots with the polyclonal anti-Ab. that are produced by and released from infected macrophages. These lipoglycans are transferred to T cells to inhibit T cell responses, providing a mechanism that may promote immune evasion. Introduction contamination results in the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) made up of bacterial content from infected macrophages (1C4). EVs produced during contamination with mycobacterial species are able to regulate uninfected macrophages (2C9). We have shown that EVs from components and had activity to regulate uninfected macrophages, exosomes from infected macrophages (when separated from BVs) lacked these components and activities, demonstrating the importance of BVs in determining the export of components from infected macrophages (3). produces BVs both during macrophage contamination and in axenic culture; the BVs produced under these two conditions carry overlapping content (1C3, 10C12) and comparable immune-modulatory properties (3, 12C14). The content and immune-modulatory properties of exosome preparations from infected macrophages (1, 5, 10) are also overlapping with BVs (11, 12, 15), although our interpretation is usually that this is due to the presence of BVs in the exosome preparations (3). BVs from mycobacteria in Sodium orthovanadate axenic cultures and from infected macrophages have been assessed for mycobacterial components by proteomic and biochemical studies. They contain numerous bacterial proteins, including lipoproteins (e.g. LpqH, LprG), lipoglycans and glycolipids (e.g. lipoarabinomannan (LAM), lipomannan (LM), and phosphatidylinositol mannoside species (PIMs)), and antigens (e.g. Ag85B) (1C3, 10C12). These components may contribute to both host immune responses and immune evasion mechanisms, e.g. provision of antigen to drive T cell responses, lipoproteins to activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and inhibit macrophage antigen presentation, and LAM to inhibit phagosome maturation (16C26). Thus, BV release provides a mechanism to broadcast components beyond infected macrophages; this mechanism has the potential to either expand host defense or to promote immune evasion. Prior studies of BVs and EV preparations from infected macrophages have investigated the effects of these vesicles on macrophages (3C6, 8, 12, 14), but these studies have not resolved direct effects of these vesicles on T cells. Of significant interest are the lipoglycans LAM and LM. These major components of the cell wall are found in BVs isolated from axenic culture and from infected macrophages. LAM has been shown to inhibit activation of CD4+ T cells, leading to decreased proliferation and cytokine production upon TCR stimulation (27C30). In this context, LAM inhibits TCR signaling, as manifested by decreases in Lck, LAT and ZAP-70 phosphorylation (27, 28). Importantly, exposure of CD4+ T cells to LAM during T cell activation induces anergy, manifested by decreased T cell responses upon subsequent stimulation and increased expression of anergy markers such as the Sodium orthovanadate E3 ubiquitin ligase GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes) (29). However, exposure of T cells to BVs and LAM may primarily occur in the lung, and LAM may primarily impact effector T cells as opposed to priming of Sodium orthovanadate na?ve T cells. Also, it is still unclear whether LAM can be transferred to T cells from macrophage phagosomes, where is sequestered, and a mechanism for LAM trafficking from infected macrophages to T cells has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that LAM is trafficked by BVs that are produced by in phagosomes and released by macrophages to reach CD4+ T cells in the Sodium orthovanadate lung and inhibit their responses, supporting bacterial immune evasion. In these studies, we demonstrate that EVs from infected macrophages, but not EVs from uninfected macrophages, inhibit T cell activation, an inhibition attributable to the presence of BVs. This inhibition may be due in part Rabbit Polyclonal to PKR to the trafficked LAM, but additional bacterial components of the BVs may also contribute. BVs inhibited the activation of Th1 effector CD4+ T cells as well as na?ve T cells. The ability to inhibit Th1 effector responses is of particular potential significance, as this mechanism could limit protective Th1 responses to at the site of infection (where BVs are most likely to encounter T Sodium orthovanadate cells). Moreover, we demonstrate that pulmonary CD4+ T cells acquire LAM in the course of aerosol infection of mice with virulent infection, potentially contributing to bacterial immune evasion. Materials and Methods Reagents.