Additional 212 samples of the laboratory diagnosed data were examined serological for B. serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for any vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are comparable in terms Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 of multiple pathogen contamination to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as traveling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs. Background The zoogeographical range of pathogens of arthropod-borne diseases is restricted by the distribution areas of their vectors and hosts [1]. Dogs are competent reservoir hosts of several zoonotic pathogens and can serve as a readily available source of nutrition for many blood-feeding arthropods [2]. Increasing pet tourism and importation of animals from endemic areas present German veterinary practitioners progressively with amazing diseases, like leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariosis [3-7]. The frequency of dog-tourism and -import was first reported in the study of Glaser and Gothe, who analyzed 5,340 questionnaires in the years 1985 to 1995 [4]. The results revealed a steady increase of dogs taken abroad, rising from 31.1% in 1990 to 40.8% in 1994. Also in the United Kingdom an increasingly mobility of domestic pets is usually conspicuous. Since February 2000 every pet entering the United Kingdom is registered in conjunction with the Pet Travel Plan (Domestic pets) and the released data show a steadily increase from 14,695 domestic pets in the year 2000 up to 82, 674 domestic pets in the year 2006 [8,1]. Besides the registration of departure and access, domestic Mouse monoclonal to Caveolin 1 pets have to run through a serology and ecto- and endoparasiticidal treatment 24-48 h before re-entry to the United Kingdom [1]. This is important, because domestic pets traveling abroad are exposed to numerous arthropod-borne diseases, especially in the popular destinations of the Mediterranean area and Portugal [4,7,9]. In addition to the domestic pets joining their owners for any vacation, a large number of dogs, is imported to Germany by visitors or animal protection societies [3,4,10,11]. While given birth to and raised in the endemic area – their country of origin – imported dogs have an increased risk of contracting a canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) [5]. National and international investigations are necessary to be able to Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 estimate topical risks, both in endemic and in currently non-endemic regions. This information would suggest how to avoid an import of pathogens, e.g. with the help of preventive steps. The increased Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 mobility of domestic pets is an important matter in the extension of the zoogeographical ranges for many arthropod-borne pathogens [1]. A previously non-endemic region.