Therefore, in the context of drugs and drugs of abuse, the Laboratory and Scientific Section, Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs developed colorimetric testing kits for rapid and simple in field identification of drugs and precursors that are likely to be found in the illicit traffic. applicability of these (nano)materials, functionalized or not, has significantly increased, and ML 7 hydrochloride are therefore highly suitable for use in the detection of drugs. Lately, such functionalized nanoscale materials have assisted in the detection of illicit drugs fingerprints, providing large surface area, functional groups and unique properties that facilitate sensitive and selective sensing. The review discusses the types of commonly abused drugs and their toxicological implications, classification of ML 7 hydrochloride functionalized nanomaterials (graphene, carbon nanotubes), their fabrication, and their application on real samples in different fields of forensic science. Biosensors for drugs of abuse from the last decade’s literature are then exemplified. It also offers insights into the prospects and challenges of bringing the functionalized nanobased technology to the end user in the laboratories or in-field. and the degradation is also dependent on the pH and heat. Analytical methods that include quantification of heroin recognize that heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine are unstable in certain ML 7 hydrochloride matrices and suggest using freshly prepared solutions (Jones et al., 2013). This review focuses on recent development of (bio)sensors for the detection of drugs of abuse in seized street samples and biological fluids. Given the importance of drug metabolites for the detection in body fluids aspects regarding pharmacokinetics and toxicology of common drugs of abuse are briefly discussed. The integration of nanomaterials and affinity elements, such as aptamers and MIP into the sensors for increased sensitivity and selectivity is usually presented. Finally, further improvements and the necessity to tackle the problem of selective detection are discussed. Types of Drugs of Abuse and Their Toxicological Implications An overall increase in drug-related deaths has been observed over the last 5 years, with increases reported in all age groups above the age of 30 years. Drug overdose deaths are rarely associated with the consumption of one material alone. Modern drug consumption patterns are highly dynamic, with an increased number of drugs appearing on the market (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Dependency, 2019). According to the European Drug Report 2019 cannabis is the most used drug with 24.7 million users aged 15C64 in 2018 (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2019). 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (-THC) is the compound responsible for the psychoactive actions of the drug. Besides 9-THC, organic cannabis products contain additional cannabinoids which do not produce psychoactive effects, such as cannabinol, and cannabidiol (Rhee et al., 1997; Pertwee, 2005). Synthetic cannabinoids are compounds prepared by chemical synthesis to produce the same effects as 9-THC and have emerged more and more recently. They are more unsafe, as their effects are more potent, and they also contain unknown chemicals made-up with the drug that may have negative effects on human health. 9-THC metabolite, THC-COOH, can be detected in body fluids, such as saliva, urine and blood, three to six hours after its consumption and can be retained in the body for several days (Huestis, 2007). Detection in saliva would be preferred, as it is usually non-invasive Rabbit Polyclonal to VASH1 and simple compared to detection in blood. The concentration of 9-THC in saliva is usually a function of the time since the cannabis consumption (Dobri et al., 2019), with a maximum salivary 9-THC level of 16 mol and is also dependent on the pH and heat (Jones et al., 2013). Acute effects of heroin consumption include a rush of pleasurable feelings followed by flushing of the skin, reduced breathing and heart rate and severe itching. Chronic use ML 7 hydrochloride may cause inflammation of the gums, decreased memory and intellectual capacity, insomnia, impotence, contamination of the blood vessels, muscle weakness and pain and strong physical dependence and tolerance (Jones et al., 2013). Examples of (BIO)Sensors for Drugs of Abuse Nowadays, (bio)sensors are widely used in biomedical diagnosis, point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, but also in other areas such as environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics, and biomedical research. ML 7 hydrochloride Usually (bio)sensors are coupled with high-affinity biomolecules or other recognition elements, such as molecularly imprinted polymers, and in this way can allow the sensitive and selective detection of.